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    2. Health Monitoring Program

      Facility Control and Maintenance

      Mice intended for export are housed in a strictly controlled barrier facility with limited access granted only to trained laboratory and animal care personnel via key card access. Personal protective equipment, including disposable gowns, shoe covers, gloves, hair bonnets, and masks, is required for entry into the facility. Animal care personnel are dedicated to the facility and/or room to ensure strict adherence to facility protocol. Mice are housed in positive-pressure, individually ventilated cages/units (IVC/U) that are changed every 1-2 weeks. Corncob bedding and paper nest enrichment are provided to the mice, and irradiated feed is supplied. Prior to use, all caging, bedding, and enrichment are autoclaved to ensure sterility. An Edstrom automatic watering system supplies processed water (reverse osmosis, chlorinated). Once mice leave the barrier facility, they cannot return.

      Health Status

      The mice housed in the GemPharmatech facility maintain a specified and opportunistic pathogen-free (SOPF) status or germ-free (GF) status. The health status of the animals is meticulously monitored through various methods, including the use of sentinel mice, random sampling within the colony, and exhaust air dusts (EAD) testing. Detailed information regarding these monitoring procedures is described below.

      Sentinel mice: The health status of all colonies is monitored on a quarterly basis using sentinel mice. These sentinel cages contain two female mice aged between 4-6 weeks. Biweekly, the sentinel mice are exposed to soiled bedding collected from cages within their respective racks. The soiled bedding samples are pooled from multiple cages. Each rack unit contains 70 or 80 cages, and the sentinel mice are housed two per cage on each side of the rack unit. The results of these tests are reported as the number of positive samples out of the total number of testing samples. The health monitoring program includes necropsy examinations, detection of parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

      Colony random sample testing: To detect any potential microbiological issues within the colony, live mice, feces, or oral swabs are randomly sampled from immunodeficient mice and large colonies such as C57BL/6, BALB/c ,NCG mice, etc.

      EAD testing: Monthly, exhaust air dust is collected for pathogen detection through EAD testing.

      Importing Animals

      For imported mice, only animals that are specific pathogen-free (SPF) are accepted. However, they must undergo rederivation and testing before being released into the barrier facility. These animals are initially quarantined in isolators, and samples such as hair, feces, or serology samples are collected and submitted to the GemPharmatech microbial testing center for analysis. Only after passing microbial tests can the animals be transported to the breeding rooms via cesarean section or embryo transfer.

      VIRUSES Method
      Mouse Thymic Virus (MTV) PCR
      Ectromelia virus (Ect) PCR
      Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) ELISA
      Sendai virus (SV) ELISA
      Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) ELISA
      Reovirus-3 (Reo-3) ELISA/PCR
      Minute virus of mice (MVM) PCR
      Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) ELISA/PCR
      Hantavirus (HV) ELISA/PCR
      Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) ELISA/PCR
      Mouse Adenovirus FL (MAD1) PCR
      Mouse Adenovirus K87 (MAD 2) PCR
      Polyoma Virus (POLY) ELISA/PCR
      Mouse Parvovirus (MPV) PCR
      Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) PCR
      Murine Norovirus (MNV) PCR
      Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice (EDIM) PCR
      K virus PCR
      LDH elevating virus (LDV) PCR
      Murine chapparvovirus (MKPV) PCR
      Proteus mirabilis Culture
      Pasteurella multocida Culture
      Klebsiella oxytoca Culture
      Filobacterium rodentium (CAR Bacillus) PCR
      Helicobacter spp. (e.g. H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. muridarum, H. rodentium) PCR
      Pneumocystis spp. PCR
      Citrobacter rodentium Culture
      Bordetella Bronchus Culture
      Mycoplasma spp. PCR
      Salmonella spp. Culture
      Mycoplasma?pulmonis PCR
      Corynebacterium?kutscheri Culture
      Tyzzer's?organism PCR
      Pasteurella?pneumotropica (Rodentibacter pneumotropicus, Rodentibacter heylii) Culture
      Klebsiella pneumoniae Culture
      Staphylococcus aureus Culture
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa Culture
      Pathogenic dermal fungi PCR
      Streptobacillus moniliformis Culture
      Corynebacterium?bovis PCR
      Eimeria spp. Micro
      Entamoeba Micro
      Endoparasites (tapeworms, pinworms, and other helminths) Micro
      Flagellatas (e.g. Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris, etc.) Micro
      Toxoplasma gondii PCR
      Ectoparasites, e.g., fleas, mites, and lice Micro
      Ciliata Micro
      Encephalitozoon?cunicul PCR
      OTHER Method
      Pinworms PCR
      Furmites PCR


      Additionally, GemPharmatech partners with several respected institutions and organizations to breed and house mice. For information on the health monitoring and testing practices of these facilities, please contact us.